Updated 1 month ago

Fossil fuels pros and cons

Written by Evan Nicoles

Image source: Time

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 79% of energy consumption in the U.S. comes from fossil fuels. 

When we mention fossil fuels, we’re referring to coal, petroleum, crude oil, and natural gas for energy. Fossil fuels are a finite resource, meaning there's only a limited supply available.

Fossil fuels have been used for over 100 years, so the industry and processes are well-developed. But we've learned that burning fossil fuels causes incredible damage to human and environmental health and is the leading contributor to human-induced climate change.

Let's take a closer look at the pros and cons of fossil fuels and what alternatives there are.

Key takeaways

  • Fossil fuels have been powering the world for decades, making them cheap and reliable since the infrastructure is already in place for their continued use.

  • Although fossil fuels are easy to fall back on, they are the main contributor to global climate change and a huge form of pollution.

  • Fossil fuels are non-renewable, meaning the fossils we dig up to burn will eventually run out or continue to be harder to find and extract.

Fossil fuel pros and cons

Pros of fossil fuels

Cons of fossil fuels


Contribute to climate change

Cheap and reliable








Though fossil fuels have been meeting our energy needs for many years, the cons outweigh the pros. 

Advantages of fossil fuels

The advantages of fossil fuel use are mostly attributed to the convenience and ease of using well-established energy methods. Despite their convenience, the continued use of fossil fuels is leading to negative environmental impacts.

1. Well-developed

The technology we use to harness the energy in fossil fuels, such as oil rigs and drilling equipment, is well-developed. 

The main reason for this is that fossil fuels have been used to power our world for many decades. This makes it easy for utility companies and the energy sector to rely on old versions of energy like fossil fuels instead of innovating to be more efficient. 

2. Cheap and reliable

Fossil fuels have such a low cost because they are heavily subsidised by the government, and are a reliable (as in, not intermittent like solar and wind power) source of energy. 

They are deemed reliable because they can be burned day or night and they aren’t hindered by weather patterns that power renewable resources, like wind and sun. However, “cheap” is a loaded term since fossil fuels are only “cheap” because of subsidies.

Disadvantages of fossil fuels

1. Contribute to climate change

Fossil fuels are the main driver of global warming. When they are burned, they release vast amounts of harmful byproducts called greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide (CO2)), into the atmosphere. 

CO2 traps an unnatural amount of heat into the atmosphere which leads to changing weather patterns, such as hotter temperatures, more droughts, more erratic rainfall, and an overall less hospitable planet. 

2. Non-renewable

Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy - unlike solar power, geothermal, and wind energy. 

This means that there are finite resources available and its reserves are not replenished naturally. While fossil fuels are made up of decomposed organic matter, like dead plants and animals, they take millions of years to form. 

And unlike their renewable counterparts, they cause pollution when burned for energy.

3. Unsustainable

We are using too many fossil fuels too quickly. 

There is no safe amount of fossil fuel use because any burning of fossil fuels in power plants (or from cars) leads to CO2 release and air pollution.

Luckily, renewable energy sources are becoming more affordable and competitive with fossil fuels.

4. Incentivized

One of the major reasons why fossil fuels are considered cheap is due to a history of government incentives, to the tune of $5.2 trillion dollars.

If renewable resources and alternative energy options are ever going to compete with the fossil fuel industry in a meaningful way, we need to begin subsidizing them more than fossil fuels. 

Fossil fuel companies and utility companies have been mired in politics since they rolled out electricity in the early 1900’s, which makes it challenging to untangle their hold over the energy market since there are so many actors at play.

5. Accident-prone

Fossil fuels have led to extreme accidents over the years, including pipeline leaks, exploding drilling platforms, and the dumping of millions of gallons of oil into the ocean. Fossil fuels will continue to pollute the planet as long as they are in use. 

Although fossil fuels have been meeting the world’s energy demands for many years, it doesn’t mean that we should continue to use them as our main energy resource.

Alternative sources of energy are becoming cheaper and more reliable and have the added benefit of not emitting CO2 while they power our lives.  

Transitioning to renewable energy sources

Installing solar panels is a great opportunity to be a part of the transition away from fossil fuels. 

Solar panels can produce huge amounts of energy for homes and businesses - and they have become much cheaper over the years. 

Solar energy outshines fossil fuels because of its very low impact on human health, zero greenhouse gas emissions, and ability to take advantage of natural processes, like the shining sun, to generate power.

Is solar energy a viable fuel source?

Yes, solar energy is increasingly becoming a viable fuel source for everyone. 

When residential solar energy equipment was first made available to homeowners it was costly. The people who made the switch were usually those who wanted to make a conscious effort to reduce their carbon footprints. But they also had the means to invest in the equipment and services needed to make that switch. In the beginning, like many other new technologies, initial adopters often paid more until the technologies became more mainstream.

Today, switching to solar energy is far more affordable with the help of programs like the solar tax credit. This incentive provides a tax credit of 30% of the cost to install solar power at your home. While this credit is in effect at 30% until the end of 2032, once it expires, solar energy will still remain a low-priced source of power as prices will most likely continue to drop. Meanwhile, oil, gas, and coal prices are likely to continue to increase, especially as sources are depleted and the costs to obtain these fuels grow.

Tools, such as our solar panel calculator, can help you determine how many solar panels would you need to effectively power your home and the costs involved using your location. Find out now!

Want to power your home with clean energy?
Written by Evan Nicoles Chief Operating Officer

With a degree in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech, Evan uses his technical background to develop and implement content with a data-driven approach. He strives to create unique, interactive content to help homeowners better understand what solar is all about. Evan's interest in solar started while studying Electrical Engineering at Virginia Tech. He took a renewable energy course and was particularly drawn to the solar industry. As a res...

Learn more about Evan Nicoles